Parameters Formulae References Stream order (U) Hierarchical rank of streams [22] Stream length (Lu) Length of the stream [23] Mean stream length (Lsm) Lsm = Lu/Nu where: Lsm = mean stream length, Lu = total stream length of order “U”, Nu = total no. of stream segments of order “U” [22] Stream length ratio (RL) RL = Lu/(Lu − 1) where, RL = stream length ratio, Lu = the total stream length of the order “U”, Lu − 1 = the total stream length of its next lower order [23] Bifurcation ratio (Rb) Rb = Nu/Nu + 1 where, Rb = bifurcation ratio, Nu = total number of stream segments of order “U”, Nu + 1 = number of segments of the next higher order [24] Mean bifurcation ratio (Rbm) Rbm = average of bifurcation ratios of all order [25] Stream frequency (Fs) Fs = Nu/A where, Fs = stream frequency, Nu = total no. of streams of all orders, A = area of basin [23] Drainage texture (T) T = Dd × Fs where, T = Drainage texture, Dd = drainage density, Fs = stream frequency [26] Drainage density (Dd) Dd = Lu/A where, Dd = drainage density, Lu = total stream length of all orders, A = area of basin [23] Circularity ratio (Rc) Rc = 4πA/P2 where, Rc = circularity ratio, pi = pi value, A = area of basin, P2 = square of the perimeter [22] Elongation ratio (Re) where, Rc = circularity ratio, A = area of basin pi = pi value, Lb = basin length [25] Form factor (Ff) Ff = A/L2 where, Ff = form factor, A = area of basin (km), = square of the basin length [23] Relief R = H − h where, R = relief, H = Vertical distance of the lowest highest points = Vertical distance of the lowest points of watershed in (m) [27] Relief ratio Rh = H/Lb where, Rh = relief ratio, H = total relief of the basin in km, Lb = basin length [28] Length of overland flow (Lg) Lg = 1 Dd × 2 where, Lg = length of overland flow, Dd = drainage density [23]