Study Design



Study Location

Intervention and Control


Tourigny A, et al., 2004

Quasi -experimental study (analyzed changes before intervention [T0] and every 12 months [T1, T2, T3] after intervention for a 3-year period)

482 frail elderly people aged ≥ 75 years and their caregivers from 2 semi-urban communities (272 elderly people and 135 caregivers in the experimental group; 210 and 129 in the control group)

To determine the impact of the Integrated Service Delivery (ISD) network on frail elderly people and their caregivers, and on the utilization of health and social services

Bois-Frances region in the Province of Quebec, Canada

ISD implemented study area versus no-ISD control area

“Outcomes in frail elderly people”

1) Positive effects on desire to be institutionalized in the first two years (T0 - T1: P = 0.002, T0-T2: P = 0.04)

2) Positive effects on elderly people with mobility problems at T1 (P = 0.002) and T2 (P = 0.07)

“Outcomes in caregivers” Positive effects on caregiver burden at T1 (P = 0.05) and T2 (P = 0.04)

Melis R, et al., 2008

Pseudocluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) (analyzed differences between Intervention and Control groups in changes from baseline in GARS-3 and MOS-20 MH at 3-month follow-up [T1 - T0])

151 vulnerable (problem-based) elderly people aged ≥ 70 years (85 participants in the DGIP group and 66 in the usual care group)

To describe the effects of the Duch Geriatric Intervention Program (DGIP) compared to usual care in improving health-related quality of life and promoting successful aging in independently living frail older patients

Nijmegen, The Netherlands

DGIP implemented group and usual care group

“Primary outcome”

1) Functional performance improved after 3 months of follow-up from baseline (95% CI = −4.2 to −0.3, p < 0.05)

2) Mental well-being improved after 3 months of follow-up from baseline (95% CI = 0.1 to 11.4, p < 0.05)

3) Mental well-being improved after 6 months of follow-up from baseline (95% CI = 2.4 to 15.6, p < 0.01)

“Secondary outcomes”

Negative affect domain of DQoL improved at 3 months (95% CI = −0.37 to −0.04, p < 0.05)

Metzelthin S, et al., 2013

Cluster RCT

(analyzed differences at baseline and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up)

346 frail elderly people (Groningen Frailty Indicator scores ≥ 5) aged ≥ 70 years in 12 general practices (193 in the intervention group [6 practices] and 153 in the control group)

To investigate the effectiveness of the Prevention of Care (PoC) approach on various patient-level outcomes compared with usual care

Sittard, The Netherlands

PoC implemented group and usual care group

“Primary outcome”

No significant group by time interaction effects for the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale scores or for activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living subscale scores

“Secondary outcomes”

No significant effects on depressive symptomatology, social support interactions, fear of falling, and social participation