mean specific body force;

symmetric part of;

mean specific internal energy;

mean production associated with;

production associated with;

mean flux associated with;

specific turbulent kinetic energy;


fluxes associated with and, respectively;

mean heat flux;

turbulent heat flux;

mean specific energy supply;

Reynolds’ stress;

mean specific entropy supply;


mean Cauchy stress;

mean velocity;

mean internal friction;

arbitrary quantity;

material derivative of w.r.t.


mean and fluctuating values of, respectively;

mean density of the solid grains;

specific turbulent dissipation;

mean specific entropy;

mean volume fraction;

mean entropy production;

mean entropy flux;

turbulent entropy flux;

any mean orthogonal rotation of a granular RVE;