Adaptation Strategies

Practical examples found in the literature


Farm management and Technology (FMT)

Diversify to indirect farming activity

Increasing farm size for food production

Improved crop varieties

Soil and water conservation techniques

Crop diversification

Changing planting dates and periods

Soil and plant related strategies

“Gari” processing and petty trading [62] [63] , animal production and expansion to animal production

Expansion of farm size [64]

Use of improved crop and breeds including high yielding crops, early maturing varieties, drought tolerant and improved breeds [62] [E.g. A typical example of improved maize used by farmers is Obaatanpa [63] and short duration crops

Indigenous irrigation for crops [65] : construction of mounds, ridges, bunds or drainage channels [62] [63] ; mulching, small scale dam in the farm, hand dug trenches, and intentionally leaving out of big trees on the farm [66]

Manual digging of well in the farms for irrigation [63]

Farmers who farm close to water (about 46 % of the respondents) rely heavily on the water bodies for manual irrigation [63] but these water bodies dry out during the dry season.

Rainwater harvesting [67]

Zero tillage [66]

Tree planting and agro-forestry [66]

Intercropping maize with cassava, cocoyam, plantain or vegetables for instance [63] ; intercropping cereals with leguminous [66] , especially groundnut and maize [68]

Changing planting dates and densities [24] [64] [69] [70] [71] ); early or late planting and timing of the onset of the rainy season [62] [72] Apply sawdust and other organic materials (e.g. compost) to improve crop yield, agroforestry [66] [73]

Bush fallow, crop rotation, [22] [62] [64] ; Seed preservation, Tractor/Animal ploughing [22]

Integrated soil fertility management technologies [74]


Farm financial management (FFM)

Financing farms for sustainability

Female farmers form groups and take loans together for capital to invest in farms. The male farm heads sell livestock to be invested in crop farming [71]