Operability defines

Measurement scale


Individuals are aware of the importance of attending bird-watching tour.

making references from Laurent and Kapferer (1985) , McIntyre and Pigram (1992) and Hwang et al. (1999), and combines the characteristics of bird-watching tourism


Bird-watching tour bring the pleasure and happiness to tourists.


The individual would like to show individual skills or be one of the group, and express themselves through the participation of bird-watching tour.

Risk probability

It refers to the perception that tourists are faced with the risk and uncertainty when they choose bird travel products.

Risk consequences

It refers to the perception of the degree of negative experience are caused by the improper selection of bird-watching tourism products or destinations.

Environmental maintenance behavioral intention

In the process of tourism, tourists’ intention of taking action to reduce the negative impact on the scenic spot environment.

Using the scale of studies of Chiu et al. (2014) , Lee (2011) , and Li Qiucheng, Zhou Lingqiang (2014) and based on the bird-watching tourism specific situation

Promoting environment behavioral intention.

Tourists initiatively take action to promote environmental protection in scenic spots.