[44] Niu et al., 2009.

In vivo

Vaccine of DNA pGJA-P/VAX

Gnotobiotic rats

Intramuscular/ intranasal

Vaccine was successful in the reduction of levels of caries caused by S. mutans in gnotobiotic animals. However, its protecting effect against the infection by S. sobrinus proved to be weak.

After cloning the catalytic region (cat) of the Gtf-I fragment of S. sobrinus, a synthesis inhibition of the insoluble glucan in water by S. sobrinus, which can result in a new variation of pGJA-P/VAX to produce an anticaries DNA vaccine.

[45] Chen et al., 2013.

In vitro

Vaccine DNA pGJA-P/VAX



In comparison with the system of Chitosan/ traditional DNA, the new design has yielded higher transfection efficiency and increased residence time of anionic lipsome/Chitosan/DNA, which will induce a higher level of sIgA on “in vivo” study.

While this new complex appears to have minimal toxicity, the results suggest that the developed nanoparticles have a “delivery” potential of DNA vaccines, which will make mucosal immunity more efficient.

[46] Su et al., 2014.

In vitro/in vivo

Vaccine DNA pCI-IL-6



Mice immunized with the variation pCI-IL-6 showed less decay than the control group

Intranasal co-administration of IL-6 significantly improves the immunogenicity of the anticaries DNA vaccine.