[30] Mitoma et al., 2002

In vivo

Antibodies (milk immune)



The group of rats receiving milk with antibodies had significantly less caries development than the control group.

Immunization showed decrease in caries development in rats and may present similar results in humans. However, the duration is uncertain and because it is a passive immunization does not generate a lasting response.

[33] Russell e Colman, 1981.

In vivo

Protein (purified Gtf)



Immunized monkeys showed elevated levels of serum antibodies against Gtf, but there was no difference in the development of dental caries among immunized animals and the control group.

The Gtf showed no ability to induce specific immune response against cariogenic pathogens.

[27] Lehner et al., 1981.

In vivo

Protein (Antigens I, II e III)



There was no reduction of caries in monkeys immunized with antigen III. The reduction of caries in the immunized animals with antigens I or I/II was discrete.

The protection against caries was associated predominantly to IgG antibodies of gingival fluid, driven, possibly to antigen I.

[42] Jia et al., 2006.

In vivo

Vaccine of DNA pGJA-P/VAX

Rabbits and monkeys

Intranasal/ Intramuscular

The antigens vaccine fused to cytotoxic T lymphocytes induced increase in specific antibody responses in serum and in saliva compared to DNA vaccine without fusion, in rabbits. Significant levels of IgG in specific serum and salivary IgA were also detected in monkeys immunized with fusion vaccine.

The fusion of the CTLA4 antigen results in improved immunological efficacy and strongly suggests that it may represent a promising approach to prevent dental caries and other infectious diseases.

[43] Fan et al., 2002.

In vivo

Vaccine of DNA


Gnotobiotic rats


submucosa/ sub-cutaneous (salivary gland)

Lower levels of caries and high levels of serum sIgA and IgG after direct application in salivary gland were observed.

The DNA vaccine pCIA-P recombinant can induce anticaries protection and immune responses through the injection salivary gland are a promising strategy for inhibiting dental caries.