Author and Year

Type of study

(in vitro or in vivo)

Type of vaccine (DNA or protein-antibody)

Type of animal (in vivo studies) and type of cell

Route of administration (in vivo studies)




Yang et al., 2009.

In vivo

Vaccine DNA


Gnotobiotic mice and rats


Increased production of IgG and SIgA. Decreased growth of caries lesions in enamel, dentin light lesions and dentin moderate lesions of 21.1%, 33.0% and 40.9%, respectively.

The production process of pGJA-P/ VAX preparation was efficient. The vaccine showed a high degree of purity and desired efficiency, thereby facilitating future clinical trials of this anticaries DNA vaccine.


Zhang et al., 2007.

In vivo/in vitro

Vaccine DNA pGJA-P/VAX1



Gnotobiotic hamster/human dendritic cells

Intramuscular/ intranasal

Vaccines pGJA-P/vax1

and pGJA-P induced higher response of salivary and serum antibodies than pGLUA-P. Fewer caries lesions were observed in hamsters immunized with pGJA-P/vax1 and pGJA-P.

The antigen encoded by CTLA-4 associated to DNA vaccine pGJA-P/vax1 can bind specifically to human dendritic cells. Furthermore, this combination increased the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine.


Xu et al., 2005.

In vivo

Vaccine DNA pGJA-P/VAX



Antibody responses induced by pGJA-P/ VAX lasting more than 6 months. Furthermore, the pGJA-P/VAX could still be detected either at the site of inoculation, and in the cervical lymph nodes draining, 6 months after immunization.

The persistent immune responses are probably due to the deposit of DNA into the host, which acts as a booster immunization. Thus, there is a greater immunological memory.


Xu et al., 2007.

In vivo

Vaccine DNA pGJA-P/VAX



SIgA response were induced, resulting in reduction of enamel and dentin lesions caused by S. mutans and reduced enamel lesions in individuals infected with S. sobrinus

pGJA-P/VAX induces immune response only to infection by S. mutans, but also provided cross-protection against S. sobrinus strain infection in rats.


Talbman et al., 1995.

In vivo


(specific region of Gtf de S. mutans)


Infection with the regions of GTF.

Increased of specific serum IgG for Gtf; Significant reduction of caries.

Immunization with peptides derived from functional domains of S. mutans Gtf are protective for infection with S. sobrinus or S. mutans.