Intracellular location

Intracellular function


Cytoplasm/ cytoskeleton

Involved in various types of cell motility and is expressed in all eukaryotic cells [69] .


Cytoplasm (but it can also shuttle to the nucleus)

Providing the force for cell motility, mediates actin polymerization upon stimulation by nucleation-promoting factor (NPF), promotes homologous recombination (HR) repair in response to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to drive motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) [70] [71] [72] [73]


Both in the Cytoplasm and Nucleus

Regulating actin dynamics at sites of cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix junctions. It is also involved in the formation of filopodia, which are thin, finger-like protrusions that cells use to sense their surroundings. Filopodia are important for cell migration, guidance, and communication [74] .


Extracellular space/ Melanosome

Calcium-regulated membrane-binding protein binds two calcium ions with high affinity, less toxin binds to human cells, and less vacuolization [75] [76] .


Cytoplasm/ Nucleus/ Cell projection

providing the force for cell motility, promotes actin polymerization in the nucleus, thereby regulating gene transcription, promotes homologous recombination (HR), and repair in response to DNA damage by promoting nuclear actin polymerization, leading to driving motility of double-strand breaks (DSBs) [77] [78] .