TIMP member

Source of TIMP member

Types of MMPs inhibited



human skin [79] fibroblast; tendons [80] ; many other cells

most of the known MMPs

in addition to tissue remodelling, it promotes proliferation of a wide range of cells; it has anti-apoptotic function; involved in pancreatic cancer, melanoma, and glioblastoma [81]


endothelial and other cells [82]

forms a complex with collagen IV, but inhibits also other MMPs in tissues

suppresses proliferation of endothelial cells; involved in cardiac fibroblast ECM remodelling; osteoarthritis in Chinese Han population [83]


gingival fibroblasts [84] ; intestinal epithelial cells [85] ; liver cells plus other cells

most of the dominant MMPs in tissue

mutation of this gene is associated with Sorsby’s fundus dystrophy; after myocardiac infarction, over expression of this member promotes angiogenesis; on the other hand, it inhibits vascular endothelial factor (VEGF)―mediated angiogenesis [86] [87] ; prevent fatty liver and carcinoma [88]


brain cells, fat cells [89]

anticipated to inhibit a number of MMPs but results are not yet confirmed

regulates carcinogenesis through enriching tumor progenitor cervical cancer cells [90] ; triggers apoptosis in cervical cancer cells [91] ; related to focal epilepsy in Malaysian Chinese [92] ; involved in human gliomas [93]