Monitoring technology and early safety warning


Levelling, rod extensometers and torpedo inclinometer

Ground and wall displacements, accuracy of monitoring method (human or environmental errors)


Internet-of-Things-(IoT) based safety barrier early warning system

Tracking of workers and “things” to change their risky behaviors, diaphragm wall collapse (elastic potential energy exceeded)


Optical fiber sensing technology (fiber Bragg grating-FBG-technology)

Deformation of foundation pi


Slope indicator systems, strain gauges, optical fiber and topographic survey

Displacements and strains of a noncontinuous anchored wall, earth pressure influence on lateral displacement (supported by numerical analysis)


Displacement monitoring with a precise total station; crack measurements, rainfall observations, groundwater and seepage observations; Stress-monitoring equipment (vibrating string extensometer); Computer aided information management system

Deformation of foundation pit, ground surface settlement, inclination of the surrounding buildings, foundation settlement of adjacent buildings, integrated management of monitoring data (instrumentation, monitoring points, construction progress, the surrounding environment) and 3D visualization

Construction safety risk management



Existing adjacent railway operation, railway subgrade deformation


Monitoring based risk disposal

Distance from excavation, additional load due to stock piling materials on the pit edge, groundwater level change


Case analysis of safety accidents (accident forecasting and prevention)

Safety behaviors of personnel, technological innovation of safety management, integration of networking and digital technology


Support Vector Machine

Excavation deformation, longitudinal slope instability, gushing of water and sand


Building Information Modeling (BIM)

Technical risks, Geological risks, Environmental risks


Equivalent axial stiffness theory & Monte Carlo simulation technique

Soil parameter uncertainty, tunnel longitudinal stiffness, excavation depth


Case study on damage remedial work

Grouting, soil unloading due to excavation, deformation of shield tunnel, groundwater drawdown