Numerical inverse analysis

A shift from temporary to permanent support system, over-excavation (design depth increment), stress–strain behavior

Construction method


Divided-pit construction (FEM implemented)

Irregular excavation geometry and depth, displacement of adjacent conserved buildings (relative location from the pit), effects of buildings on excavation process (pit deformation due to buildings)

[51] [52]

Zoned and staged construction, Channel-type top-down method of excavation

Construction cost and schedule, excavation support deformation, hauling distance, safe operation of adjacent railway (allowable displacement of the rail tracks)


Dividing alternate excavation method (strip excavation plus several dividing walls)

Time-space effect and stiffness of tunnel, tunnel deformation, construction period


Case histories from bottom-up construction technique

Foundation pit deformation, quick excavation, promptly propping, timely casting of floor slabs, segmented construction, excavation stage


Top-down technique and inverse numerical analysis

Displacements of existing buildings, retaining wall deformations, hydraulic uplift failure mechanisms, wall installation effect


Both top-down and bottom-up construction method with bipartition walls

Oversized excavation, time-space-effect on both deflection of diaphragm wall and deformation of partition walls


Zoned excavation and instrumented observation

Wall deflection, ground settlement, corner effect, construction sequence, performance of adjacent metro line


Bottom-up construction method with zoned construction

Lateral wall displacement, adjacent utility tunnel movement, stage and sequence of construction, construction schedule, groundwater dewatering, basal ground treatment

Interaction with the surrounding environment



Excavation zone of influence, building settlement



Frame action with inclusion of building stiffness, limiting tensile strain



Stages of construction, deformation of excavation, strains of adjacent buildings



Excavation induced axial pile deformation, vertical soil displacement, load transfer mechanism



Tunnel deformation

[41] [64] [65] [66]


Effect of depth of excavation, supporting system stiffness, pile dimensions, pile head condition, working load, soil properties, location from excavation



Isolation piles and jet-grouted piles, displacement of retaining wall



Building deformations and settlement due to excavation, distance to excavation, type of building’s foundation



3D structural distortion based on soil-structure interaction, damage due to differential displacement