EL | Moderator Variable | Q-Value | Types | S | N | Effect size and 0.95CI | Z-Value |

Surface | Cultural differences | 196.12*** | Chinese | 12 | 4284 | Fixed effect: 0.3054 (0.2778, 0.3324) Random effect: 0.3099 (0.1896, 0.4210) | Fixed: Z = 20.56, P < 0.0001 Random: Z = 4.89, P < 0.0001 |

18.82** | Non-Chinese | 9 | 5126 | Fixed effect: 0.4199 (0.3970, 0.4422) Random effect: 0.3848 (0.3152, 0.4504) | Fixed: Z = 31.97, P < 0.0001 Random: Z = 10.01, P < 0.0001 | ||

Deep | 168.08*** | Chinese | 10 | 3774 | Fixed effect: −0.1499 (−0.1801, −0.1175) Random effect: −0.1503 (−0.2838, −0.0111) | Fixed: Z = −9.18, P < 0.0001 Random: Z = −2.12, P = 0.0344 | |

4.70* | Non-Chinese | 2 | 141 | Fixed effect: −0.1155 (−0.2772, 0.0526) Random effect: 0.0657 (−0.4685, 0.5647) | Fixed: Z = −1.35, P = 0.1777 Random: Z = −0.22, P = 0.8222 |