Winne and Perry(2000) [12]

Effective strategy employment

SRL displays properties of an aptitude, which comprises two main dimensions, metacognitive knowledge and metacognitive monitoring.

Zimmerman and Schunk (2001) [7]


Operant theories explore the ways in which delayed gratification can regulate learning.


These theories regard self-regulated learning in terms of self-identities and how they affect the shaping of goals and approaches to learning.

Information processing

Information-processing theories describe self-regulation in terms of feedback loops and self-monitoring.

Social cognitive

These theories consider self-regulation in connection to goal setting, expectancies, and self-efficacy.


Volitional theories see self-regulation in terms persistence and maintaining attention in the face of distractions.


Vygotskian theories view self-regulation through the lens of sociocultural theory.


These theories construe self-regulation as a function of the various strategies and theories learners construct in order to tackle learning challenges.

Zimmerman and Tsikalas (2005) [13]

Cyclical process

SRL as a cyclical process with three phases:

1) The forethought phase: self-regulated students engage in metacognitive processes (i.e., task analysis, goal setting, and strategic planning) and self-motivational processes (task interest, values, intrinsic interest, self-efficacy).

2) The performance phase: engage in metacognitive strategies (e.g., self-instruction, attention focusing), behavioral strategies, metacognitive monitoring and behavioral recording.

3) The self-reflection phase: reflect upon and react to their performance (e.g., causal attributions for success; feelings of satisfaction).

Steffens (2006) [14]

Regulating cognitive,

Motivational strategies,

Domain-specific knowledge,

Specific learning environments

SRL involves three steps:

1) Planning (including goal setting, assessment of internal and external resources and selection of appropriate strategies).

2) Execution and monitoring (implementation of strategies, monitoring their success, possibly choosing a different strategy).

3) Evaluation (of the learning outcome).