Explanatory variables to analyze the capability a) to c)a



Upland rice area (ha)

Total land area used for upland rice farming, including fallow land.

Upland rice plots (plots)

Total number of upland rice plots, including fallow land.

Productivity (kg per ha)

Productivity of upland rice per ha.

Annual production (kg)

Total annual production from upland rice and paddy with rice husk.

Rice shortage (months)

Period of shortage of rice for family consumption.

Farming technique (5 levelsb)

Satisfaction level regarding farm technique owned by them.

Farming water (5 levelsb)

Satisfaction level regarding the water situation for farming.


Attendance of discussion (5 levelsc)

Frequency of attendance at village meeting in a year.

Expressing opinion (5 levelsd)

Frequency of expressing opinion in the village meeting.

Understanding of discussion (5 levelse)

Identification level of discussion following three topics in the village meeting; land use plan in a village, agriculture problem, and forest management.

Opinion for discussion process (5 levelsf)

Assessment for the necessity and beneficiary on bottom-up decision making process on land use plan in village.


Frequency of cooperation (5 levelsg)

Frequency level of cooperation with other villager at following activity; improving community infra such as meeting room and school, slash and burn operation, and securing farming water.

Benefit of cooperation (5 levelsh)

Recognition level for the benefit of group activity by following reason; efficiency for farming (sharing labor force), knowledge sharing.