Strategic Thinking Skill


Systems Thinking Approach

The systems perspective refers to a mental model of an organisational system with a proper understanding of the interaction and interdependence of various elements (Napier & Albert, 1990; Liedtka, 1998a; Bonn, 2001, 2005; Khalafallah, 2015; Alebbini, 2018) .


Reframing skills relate to the capability of leaders to switch attention across multiple viewpoints, mental models, and frames, as well as paradigms in order to create new visions and choices for actions (Pang & Pisapia, 2012; Pisapia et al., 2009) when trying to understand complicated and unfamiliar situations from new insights (Pisapia et al., 2005) .

Focused Intent

Intent-focused implies attaining a particular position or point of view in the long-term performance of an organisation. It is about consistency in pursuing competitiveness. Focused intent places a premium on optimism about success of initiatives and its leadership demonstrates consistency in where the organisation should be by demonstrating commitment to resolve problems and encouraging organisation culture that allows for success (Jelenc, 2008; Liedtka & Rosenblum, 1998) .

Reflecting Skills

Reflecting is the capability to combine rational and logical thinking together with experimental thinking through experience, information and perceptions to produce judgement in relation to what has happened to create intuitive principles which direct what is happening in the present time to help in directing their future actions (Mintzberg, 1994a; Bonn, 2001, 2005; Pang & Pasipia, 2012) .

Intelligent Opportunism

In any intelligent organisation, analysis of its Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) never ends; the search for opportunities from different perspectives is ongoing (Liedtka, 1998a; Liedtka & Rosenblum, 1998; Jelenc, 2008; Nasabee et al., 2009) .

Thinking in Time

This denotes the ability to assess the past and the present in order to determine the future to pursue. It is using the information available to establish existing gaps and how to address them (Liedtka, 1998a; Jelenc, 2008) .

Hypothesis Driven Thinking

This denotes the leadership’s ability to adjust their organisation’s to respond to environmental challenges (Daft, 1998; Liedtka, 1998a; Liedtka & Rosenblum, 1998; Jelenc, 2008; Goldman et al., 2017) .

Environmental Analysis

Environmental analysis places at its center internal and external analysis, emphasizes the importance of recognising the internal and external dynamics in the environment and encourages understanding of the strategic issues the organisation is faced with (Alkalibi & Idrees, 2009) .

Thinking in Time

Thinking in time is about using the information available to establish existing gaps and how to address them (Liedtka, 1998b; Liedtka & Rosenblum, 1998) .

Professional Capabilities

Professional mastery, seen as knowledge of the technical processes in the firm. Brushing up their ability to manage strategic issues with the help of publications, books, seminars, workshops or consultancy (Bonn, 2001; Gaglio & Katz, 2001; Gaglio, 2004) .