Brenner (2005)

To provide a better understanding

j of barriers to, and facilitators of, research utilisation




A predominantly non-experimental descriptive design

The most frequently cited barrier was lack of time to implement new ideas. All eight characteristics of the organization feature in the ten highest barriers


Squires et al. (2007)

To identify factors influencing the use of research-based practices among staff nurses in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador with the specific aim of understanding the role of Policies and procedures in promoting research utilization.

Rogers’s diffusion of innovations



A cross-sectional survey study

The most barriers to RU were lack of time, awareness of the evidence, experience in nursing, physician order, nursing beliefs, patient preferences, and the availability of resources and cost.


Bostrom et al. (2008)

To describe RNs’ perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization and to examine the validity of the BARRIERS scale in relation to research use.




A cross-sectional survey design

The characteristics of the organization such as lack of adequate resources, lack of time to read and implement new ideas, and lack of support from other staff members were the most identified barriers to RU. Also nurses perceived English language as the most barrier to RU.


Mehrdad et al. (2008)

Identification of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization in nursing practice from the perspective of Iranian nurses




A descriptive design

The three greatest barriers to RU were no enough time to read research studies, inadequate facilities to implement new ideas, and lack of authority to change procedures


Rejeh et al. (2008)

To determine Iranian nurses’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators influencing their management of post-operative pain.


Tehran, Iran


Qualitative design with semi-structured

serial interviews and analysed using the content analysis method

The barriers to manage pain after surgery were powerlessness of nurses and depend once on physicians’ orders, policies and rules of organization that do not prioritize pain management, physicians’ leading, time constraints, limited communication, interruptions of activities related to pain, and insufficient time to interact with patients.


Kajermo et al. (2008)

To identify predictors of nurses_ self-reported barriers to using research findings in clinical practice.




Three self-administrated questionnaires were mailed to the nurses

Lack of support from head nurses, unclear and unrealistic purposes for work place, lack of highly educated personnel, and the inclusion of old nurses who did not receive research courses during their education are barriers facing nurses in their practice settings.


Oh (2008)

To describe research activities, to identify barriers to research utilization for practice and to examine factors related to research barriers among critical care nurses.






Not having clear guidelines for clinical implications and lack of time to implement new ideas were the greatest barriers.


Chau et al. (2008)

To examine barriers to and facilitators of research utilization.


Hong Kong, China


A cross-sectional, correlational exploratory research design

Inadequate facilities, lack of authority to change practice, lack of time, and lack of cooperation from physicians, all of these items related to organizational characteristics were ranked as the greatest barriers.