Social and cultural values

Common norms, values, attitude and aspiration expressed in rural areas.

Common norms, values, attitude and aspiration expressed in urban areas.

1. Land occupation

Primarily existing of customary land ownership in rural areas.

Informal arrangements on use and ‘ownership’ on customary land to those outside families.

Formal arrangement and ownership also exist.

Family and wider group such as clan involved in land distribution.

Oral and written arrangements to secure land.

Land rights oral – not recorded in writing.

Land can be leased, bought or customary

Land use rights not definitive

Land has greater economic use and value

Lands associated with families, clans and tribes

Land ownership can be endorsed by courts and recorded in registers

Land used as a commodity

Individual clan, group and individual title can be given to land.

2. Habitation

Traditional design – for example outdoor food preparation areas, toilet and bath areas, storage and cattle house located away from main the building.

Indoor kitchens, and toilets other builds functional spaces being separated from main building.

Building structures reflect functionality of the spaces.

Connected to modern services including in house toilet system

Sanitation separate and away from family and house

Sanitation included to house

3. Settlement layout

Dwellings in contained village arrangement in a dispersed layout

Written rules and regulations for land allocation and house siting.

Traditional layout of buildings

Formal and informal still exist.

Informal way of building arrangement with poor infrastructure network

Low density, minimal or no reticulated services

High density, walkable

Limited transport systems

High environmental degradation

Greater flexibility of movement

High urban security, law and order Concerns.

4. Economic activities and development

Development based on farming which varying scale.

Greater need for cash for survival

For some, work only carried out as needs have to be met.

Varying levels of informal and formal sector employment and opportunities

Informal sector employment

Residents have some or self-employed.

Little regulation

Reliance on local produce – imported goods

Rules and laws impact on business opportunities

5. Laws and Order

Clan rules and Village administration authority and controls

Formal system rules and controls maybe acknowledged but many times ignored

Rules and controls set by settlement Committees (Local authorities)

6. Communication


Own dialect in homogenous


Exposure to Swahili as a first official communication language.

Dialects mixed with Swahili

Exposed to English as another official language.