Correlation Theory

Influence Factor

Major Elements

Related Scholars

Differences between National Culture and Institution

The degree of protection of investors and the perfection of accounting standards in the countries where the merged enterprises are located are positively correlated with the M&A premium.

Rossi and Volpin, 2014; John et al., 2010; Bris et al., 2008

Government corruption, political barriers and cultural distance in the countries where the merged enterprises are located are negatively correlated with the premium level.

Weitzel, 2006; Wan, 2009; Wen Riguang, 2015

Industry Characteristics

The high growth of industry market and the level of marketization are positively correlated with M&A premium.

Rhoaes, 1987; Mandelker, 1974

Information Asymmetry Theory, Value Creation Theory

Size, Financial Characteristics and Equity Concentration of Passively-Merged Enterprises

There is a negative correlation between the size of merged enterprises and the premium of mergers and acquisitions.

Li Yishi, 2014

Equity concentration is positively correlated with M&A premium.

Ferguson, 1994; Ferris, 1977; Megginson, 1990

P/E ratio and book value ratio are negatively correlated with M&A premium level, while R&D investment and growth rate after investment are positively correlated with M&A premium level.

Laamanen, 2007; ZouCaifen, 2011

Value Creation Theory

Financial Characteristics of Actively-Merging Enterprises

The free cash flow of the actively-merging enterprises is positively correlated with the premium; cash payment will lead to a lower premium.

Gondhalekar et al., 2004; Huang Benduo et al., 2009; de La Bruslerie, 2013

The Relative P/E Ratio of actively-merging enterprises is negatively correlated with M&A Premium.

Nielsen and Melicher, 1978