Symbols of variables | Expected symbol | Specification |

X |
| Value of the bilateral trade flow between i and j for four kinds of vegetable oils in year t |

GDP | Positive | Exporter’s GDP in year t, representing supply capacity of exporting countries, in logs |

GDP | Positive | Importer’s GDP in year t, representing demand capacity of importing countries, in logs |

DIS | Negative | Great circle distance between the capital cities of country i and j, in logs |

INC | Negative | Square of the difference in per capita income between countries i and j, in logs: ln[(GDP |

RATE | Uncertain | Exporter i’s currency/importer j’s currency, in year t in logs. Exchange rate is measured in Local Currency Units (LCU) per US dollars, period average. |

SEED | Negative | Value of bilateral trade flow between i and j for four main vegetable oilseeds in year t |

FTA | Positive | Dummy variable which equals 1 whenever i and j have belonged to the same bilateral or regional FTA in year t, and 0 otherwise |

LANG | Positive | Dummy variable which equals 1 whenever 9% or more of the population in both countries speak the same language, and 0 otherwise |

COL | Positive | Dummy variable which equals 1 if i and j have established colonial linkage since 1945, and 0 otherwise |

BOR | Positive | Dummy variable which equals 1 when i and j share a border, and 0 otherwise |