Intervention Component

Source or Modality


Comprehensive Trauma Assessment, Comprehensive psycho-social assessment-Case conceptualization

Development-based trauma framework (DBTF) (e.g., Kira, 2001; Kira et al., 2013 ) comprehensive psychosocial assessment

Comprehensive trauma screening using DBTF measuring cumulative trauma including secondary exposure.

Psychiatric evaluation and medication prescriptions

Standard mental status exams

Standard psychiatric evaluations by psychiatrist and therapist upon intake and on times 1 and 2. Medication prescriptions by psychiatrists

Individual Therapy (12 - 14 hourly sessions during the program with its two components) (M = 13.0, SD = 1.2 per client)

(e.g., Ruf et al., 2010 ); ( Cohen, Mannarino, & Deblinger, 2006 )

Bi-weekly and as needed to address emergent issues: Narrative exposure therapy; Trauma Focused-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) (exposure component not included)-addressing emergent behaviors and issues.

Daily groups (4 times a week) (36, hour and half sessions during the program with its two components) (M = 34.0, SD = 1.8, per client)

Kira’s model for intervention with continuous traumatic stress (Kira, 2013; Kira, Ashby, Omidy, & Lewandowski, in press; Kira et al., 2013) . Recovery Group Education and Therapy TARGET (Ford & Russo, 2006) , Ford & Courtois, 2013; Courtois & Ford, 2013

Psychoeducation, identity work, and violence prevention, anger management and personal and group-based emotion regulation. Behavioral skills building (e.g., problem solving, assertiveness-social skills, mindfulness)-Identity work-Present trauma focused-Discrimination and bullying-focused intervention-Gender discrimination-Past-trauma focused interventions-Narration and writing assignment about personal experience.

Education and homework assistance, Study groups

Huang & Cho, 2009; Springer & Diffily, 2012

Computer literacy to improve digital and cyber skills and feelings of cyber efficacy, library usage, Homework assistance, Study groups for different projects

Computer-assisted therapy An hour session a week (20 sessions) (M = 18.1, SD = 1.6, per client)

Grist & Cavanagh, 2013

Therapeutic games, cognitive and attention training

Art Therapy An hour session a week (20 sessions during the program with its two components))

CATTI ( Chapman, Morabito, Ladakakos, Schreier, & Knudson, 2001 )

Group drawings and art projects

Recreational and activity Therapies (8 Field trips during the program with its two components) )

McGhee, Groff, & Russoniello, 2005

Field trips to museums and other places of interest to increase group cohesiveness through positive group interactions and joint learning experiences.

Milieu Therapy (ongoing through the program with daily behavior charts and weekly feedback. Three have been hired through the points program as assistant group leaders)

Gunderson, J. G. (1978)

Reward-based individualized behavior management tailored to each client’s needs. Level and point systems. Those who reached level one were provided with the opportunity to work as assistant group leaders and receive financial compensation and leadership training

Unplanned, on the spot, open system interventions

Unique in this program

Targeting specific behaviors that may emerge during the course of daily interactions, (as well as emergent events in client’s life). This element is critical as it addresses behavioral problems and emotional issues immediately upon emerging, as well as immediate reinforcement for progress. Staff is trained for these unplanned events.

Re-rooting and connecting

(9 Monthly planned visits)

Unique in this program

Connect with ethnic and cultural clubs and ethnic and community organizations through visits, membership and internet.

Home-based: Parent Training (hour and half monthly session) 8 sessions

Brookman-Frazee, Stahmer, Baker-Ericzen, & Tsai, 2006

Home-based parental training-Addressing gender discrimination and effects

Home-based family Therapy (12 hourly sessions during the program with its two components)

Figley’s (1988) five-phase treatment of PTSD in families

Bi-weekly structural family therapy intervention for the first three months of the program followed by monthly follow-up home visits for an additional three months.

Advocacy and follow up and collaboration with school and other community organizations

School-based interventions

(Average 25 contacts per client)

Wraparound system of care (e.g., Cicchetti & Cohen, 1995 ). TST (Saxe et al., 2007) , Multi-Tier Mental Health Program for Refugee Youth (Ellis et al., 2013) , Trauma Systems Therapy (Saxe, Ellis, & Kaplow, 2007) . Social justice advocacy (Goodman & Gorski, 2015)

Follow up with teachers and counselors in schools, and probation officers (bi-weekly and as needed)-Consult and coordinate with teachers and counselors on individualized behavioral plans in school and the program (bi-weekly and as needed). Conduct conferences with teachers and all involved on the issues of children of torture survivors, to increase awareness understanding and empathetic concerns.