Patterns/ Variables

Pattern I:

Collecting food

Pattern II:


Pattern III:

Receding Famine

Pattern IV:

Degenerative diseases

Pattern V:

Behavioural Change

Mortality /fertility

High mortality and low fertility

High fertility and high infant and maternal mortality

Mortality declines faster, fertility declines slowly and population rises

Low mortality and fertility; and fertility below replacement

Low mortality and fertility-replacement level

Age structure

Natural balance

High infant dependency ratio

High young people dependency ratio

Elderly dependency ratio rises

High elderly population dependency ratio

Life expectancy


Short life and life expectancy less than 55 years

Medium range of life-life expectancy under 60 years

Life expectancy 60 plus years; decreases under 15 population

Life-expectancy more than 70 years; long life


Low density of population

Dominance of rural settlements

Rural urban migration begins

Urban population disperses and emigration begins

Expansion of small low dense cities