Thomas 2014 [65]

The results of the study show that if there is a lack of fit between the sponsor and the sponsored event, consumers

Focus group (198 sport fans)

Functional Symbolic

Transform: the functional value does not form if the symbolic value is not there.

Brand Customer Firm

2, 6

Tsiotsou 2012 [101]

Aaker’s brand personality to fit sport: scale does not fit sport team personality, scale consists of five dimensions: competitiveness, prestige, morality, authenticity, and credibility, which can be used for branding purposes.

Survey (301 random consumers)

Emotional Functional Symbolic

Transform: a fan’s emotional attachment to the team’s brand leads to increased team loyalty

Sports product Firm Society

2, 6

Tsiotsou 2013 [102]

A hierarchy of effects, approach, cognition-affect-conation, can explain how strong consumer-team relationships can be developed. Sports team managers should use the brand relationship and team measures and develop initiatives that ensure that consumers find self-expressive value in the team.

Survey (287 random consumers)

Functional Symbolic

Transform: positive affection and cognition towards team’s brand leads to increased customer loyalty.

Firm Customer

2, 6

Uhrich et al. 2014 [16]

The study suggests that adding CSR to sponsorship leverages sponsorship for moderately low congruity brands to the sponsored events.

Survey (437 university students)

Emotional Functional Economic

Transform: from emotional and symbolic value to economic value.


1, 3

Woratschek et al. 2014 [17]

Presents a sport-value framework which provides 10 foundational premises on value co-creation in sports management.

Critical review of literature


Platform: presents sport value framework.


Walters and Tacon 2010 [15]

The study demonstrates how CSR can be implemented within sports organisations.

Interviews (26 representatives of sports organisations)


Platform: sport offers a context for conducting CSR activities

Sports product Society

1, 3