Lee et al. 2012 [55]

The study enables us to begin to document the societal impact of sports-based social programmes as valued communication assets.

Survey (221 university students)

Social Functional Economic

Platform: sport offers a context for showing firm’s good citizenship, which, in the long run, promotes business.

Society Firm


Lorgnier and Che-Jen 2014 [88]

Coopetition is an important strategy in sport tourism in business to business networks

Interviews & observation (11 non-profit, for-profit & public organisations)

Economic Functional

Platform: economic and functional values create in coopetition situation.

Firm Sports product


Madichie 2009 [96]

Sport provides a context that extends the understanding of general management strategies in the

globalised environment.

Critical analysis of media reports


Platform: sport provides functional value by elaborating different management strategies in international business.



Olkkonen 2001 [91]

A firm creates value by exploiting its partner’s networks.

A qualitative case study of a sponsorship arrangement

Symbolic Functional

Platform: Value will be created in networks.



Pichot et al. 2009 [92]

The study explores how the practice of sports is taken seriously when organisations are reconstructing their human resource policies.

Interviews (14 company decision makers)

Emotional Functional

Platform: collective activities around sport enable emotional and functional value.



Pritchard et al. 2010 [98]

Fan identification with a sport established through two similar yet distinct psychological processes: affinity and affiliation. Identification can be created when the team’s image is congruent with the fans’ own personality.

Survey (430 university students)

Emotional Symbolic

Platform: team and community serve as platforms for value creation for the fan. Affinity and and affiliation facilitate the process.

Customer Sports product

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Reiser et al. 2012 [5]

Sport sponsorship positively impacts stock returns.

The event-study methodology (629 sponsorship deals)


Economic value is spurred by the investors’ beliefs on the benefits of sponsorship.

Brand Firm

1, 2

Richelieu and Korai 2012 [53]

Underlies the importance of culture, identity and symbolism while building a sports team brand.

Group & individual interviews (120 university students)


Fans use the symbolic, iconic and indexical dimensions of a brand to define their own identity.

Consumer Brand Sports product


Sheth and Babiak 2010 [131]

Professional managers should embrace a strategic approach to CSR to develop sports businesses.

Survey (237 sport managers)

Emotional Symbolic Functional

Transform: from emotional and symbolic to functional value.

Society Sports product


Smith 2010 [90]

To be successful, sports-city zones need to be planned as such and not merely employed as convenient brands for existing event facilities.

A comparative analysis (four sport schemes)

Social Functional

Platform: sport creates value for marketing city zones.


1, 4