Hedlund 2014 [99]

A feeling of membership in the sport fan consumption community and participation in the rituals and traditions associated with the community lead to increases in future intentions to attend the team’s games, purchase the team’s merchandise, and recommend the team’s games to others.

Survey (627 university students & alumni)

Economic Functional Emotional Symbolic

Transfer: emotional attachment to the team and community facilitate economic outcomes through fan behaviour.

Customer Firm

2, 6

Herrmann et al. 2014 [61]

Well-known brands may have several advantages in sports sponsorship. Spectators (consumers) tend to take well-known brands into a considerations set with and even without the explicit memory that the brand is the sponsor.

Survey (1084 sports event attendees)

Functional Economic

Platform: sport enables value creation for sponsoring brands.



Hu et al. 2012 [133]

Irresponsible behaviour will harm the sports brand. The brand is not only affected by sporting performance

Survey (220 university students)

Emotional Symbolic Functional

Transform: from emotional and symbolic to functional value.

Society Sports product


Inoue et al. 2013 [75]

It is profitable for non-profit organisations to co-operate with strong professional sports organisations.

Survey (2809 sports newsletter subscribers)

Economic Emotional Symbolic

Transform: from symbolic and emotional to economic value.

Customer Consumer Firm Brand Sports product


Kerwin and Bopp 2014 [95]

Due to high personnel (player) turnover, sport offers a context in which the necessity of shared leadership is promoted.

Interviews (31 players & coaches)


Transfer: the model of shared leadership in the changing environment of sport enables functional value for business organisations.



Khan et al. 2013 [93]

Employees express favourable attitudes (identification, organisational citizenship behaviour) to an employer if they are aware of its socially responsible actions (sponsoring sports).

Survey (246 employees of sponsoring firms)

Emotional Functional

Platform: sponsoring activities enable emotional value amongst employees.



Kim et al. 2003 [44]

Sport sponsors benefit from the relationship quality between sports property and its customers. The study shows that consumers who perceive a higher level of relationship quality are also more likely to form a positive attitude and greater purchase intentions towards sponsors and their products.

Survey (474 university students)

Functional Emotional Economic

Platform: sport enables value creation for sponsoring brands. Transfer: the expected value of the sponsorship is dependent on the relationship between sports property and its customers.

Brand Business


Kwak and Kang 2009 [51]

The congruence between a customer and the team, as well as the perceived quality, has a directly positive effect on the purchase intention while the perceived quality also acted as a mediator between self-image congruence and purchase intention.

Survey (260 sports event attendees)

Economic Functional Symbolic

Transform: from symbolic value (identification with the sponsoring brand) and functional value (affinity with the brand) to economic value.