Clark et al. 2009 [48]

Title sport sponsorship appears to trade largely at market-clearing prices.

The event-time methodology (114 sport events)


Platform: sport enables value creation in terms of share prices



Close and Lacey 2013 [100]

The event-sponsor fit is crucial for value creation - consumers’ positive perceptions of the sponsor rise when they perceive a greater fit with the event; yet, congruity does not influence consumers’ attitudes towards the event.

Survey (1615 cycling race


Emotional Functional Symbolic

Platform: the event

facilitates the value creation process for fans as well as sponsors.


2, 6

Cortsen 2013 [19]

The “hybrid” nature of the sports brand draws highly on “emotional capital” and “social currency”. Personal sports branding acts as a “hybrid”, which facilitates “hybrid” branding relationships between personal sports brands and sports brands at the product and corporate levels.

Interviews (with a sports celebrity and her manager)

Emotional Functional Economic

Transfer: emotions attached to a sporting celebrity transfer to the sponsor’s brand.

Sports product Brand Firm


Crader and Santomier 2011 [12]

Sport sponsorship can be successfully used to facilitate the development and implementation of a new organisational structure.

A case-study analysis


Platform: sport offers a benchmark for developing organisations internally.



DeSarbo and Madrigal 2011 [52]

The study explores the

multidimensional aspects and heterogeneity of fan avidity.

Survey (307 student sport fans)

Symbolic Emotional Functional

Transform: from emotional and symbolic value to functional value.



Dix et al. 2010 [52]

Young adult consumers’ emotional attachment to sports celebrities can be used by firms in order to influence customers’ buying intentions and strengthen their brand loyalty.

Survey (207 university students)

Emotional Symbolic Economic

Transform: from emotional and symbolic to economic value.



Donlan 2014 [49]

Sport sponsorship provides an appropriate vehicle through which to build consumer-based brand equity.

Survey (553 sports event attendees)


Platform: sport enables value creation for sponsoring brands.



Filizöz and Fisne 2011 [73]

CSR can affect attitudes and the consumer behaviour of stakeholders

Documentary research method

Functional Symbolic

Transform: from symbolic to functional value.

Sports product


Farrelly 2010 [67]

The study reveals the gaps in sponsorship relationships that are changing perceptions of value, opportunity, and responsibility. It is concluded that sponsor partners should have explicit roles in the value-creation process. Also a higher level of commitment and effort is demanded in developing marketing capabilities in sponsorship relationships.

Interviews (24 sports & business managers)

Functional Economic

Transform: from functional (successful sponsorship relationship) to economic value. Platform: sport enables value creation for joint partners.

Business relationships


Gwinner and Bennett 2008 [60]

The fit between the sponsor and the sponsored sports event has a positive influence on consumers’ purchase intensions.

Survey (552 sports event attendees)

Emotional Functional Economic

Transform: from emotional value to functional and economic value.


2, 6