Main finding



Sample size



Findings indicated that only 40% of men were found to be active about partners’ reproductive healthcare

Health Survey

Cross section

Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) data was used. Participants were married men aged 15 - 69 years

n = 1196

To investigate factors associated with male involvement in reproductive health among Bangladeshi men

Bishwajit, Tang, Yaya, Ide, Wang and Feng (2017) [6]

Results showed that men’s intention to discuss birth control is affected by attitudes, norms and self-efficacy

-The more strongly men endorsed a traditional masculinity sexual script, are less likely intend to discuss birth control


Online survey. Participants were men aged 18 - 25. Questions were attitudes toward, norms regarding and self-efficacy

n = 372

To examine men’s intentions to discuss birth control with a female partner

Masters, Morrison, Querna, Casey and Beadnell (2017) [7]

Results showed that place of residence, marital status, religion, wealth, interaction with a health care provider, fertility preference, number of sexual partners and access to media were all significantly associated with modern contraceptive use among sexually active men

Demographic and Health Survey

Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (Kenya 2014) of men aged 15 - 54 years

n = 9514

To understand the determinants of modern contraceptive use among sexually active men

Ochako, Temmerman, Mbondo and Askew

(2017) [8]

Reasons for men’s limited involvement in reproductive health include: side effects of female contraceptive methods, dissatisfaction with male contraceptive choices, perceptions that family planning was a woman’s domain, large family size preferences, and fear of partner sexual promiscuity

cross-sectional qualitative study

18 focus group discussions. Purposive sample of men aged 15 - 54 and women aged 15 - 49, eight key informant interviews with government and community leaders

n = 154

To examine gendered views regarding factors limiting men’s involvement, as evidenced by partner communication, approval, support, or utilization of family planning methods

Kabagenyi, Jennings, Reid, Nalwadda, Ntozi and Atuyambe (2014) [9]

Results show that level of male involvement was low. Lack of information, inaccessibility to the services and the desire to have more children were found to be the reasons for low male involvement in family planning services utilization

community based cross-sectional

A community-based cross-sectional study. Multi-stage sampling technique. Semi-structured questionnaires were used

n = 524

To assess the level of male involvement in family planning services utilization and its associated factors in Debremarkos Town, Northwest Ethiopia

Kassa, Abajobir and Gedefaw (2014) [10]

Findings show that: Contraceptive behavior is influenced by religious, family and social backgrounds

Gendered, male-centered values predominate in contraceptive behaviors

A systematic review of qualitative studies

Systematic review of qualitative studies published between 1994 until 2011. Participants were men from all cultures, ethnic backgrounds and religions

To explore the men’s beliefs, values, attitudes and experiences towards contraceptives

Hoga, Rodolpho, Sato, Nunes and Borges (2014) [11]

Results revealed the following:

1. Men in India think contraception is women’s business, and men should not have to worry about it. 2. Men believe, by using contraception, women may become promiscuous.

3. According to 49% men, a lactating woman, can’t become pregnant.

4. Men with higher education level, media exposure and with knowledge of modern family planning are significantly more likely to agree that wife can ask her husband to use condom if he has STDs (p < 0.01)

National Family Health Survey-3

Data from The National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3). Bivariate and multivariate analyses are used

n = 69,751 men of age group 15 to 49 years


n = 43,501 currently married men of 15 to 49 years age

To address men’s attitudes towards the use and choice of contraception by women in India

Patra and Singh

(2014) [12]