Problems regarding Saturn’s rings

Saturn’s ring problems explained through superconducting effects

1) Anomalous purity of water ice (99.9 %)

Superconductivity of ice in Saturn’s rings [13] , Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect [14]

2) The existence of a temperature boundary beyond the asteroid belt, where the planets may have rings

Superconducting transition temperature (Tc)

3) Great flattening of the rings system. Sharp edges and rings discontinuities. Arcs

The phenomenon of expulsion of the superconductors out of the areas with greater density of magnetic flow [15]

4) Fine periodical structure of the Saturn’s rings, density waves

The phenomenon of the formation of a periodic structure in a super-diamagnetic liquid film under the influence of normally oriented magnetic field

5) “Ring rain” of the submicron particles

Disappearance of the super-diamagnetic properties of superconducting particles at a greater depth than London’s penetration depth of the magnetic field (50 - 500 nm)

6) Forming and development of the “spokes” of Saturn’s B ring

Loss of superconductivity due to the critical magnetic field Hc

7) High reflection and low brightness of the ring particles in the radiofrequency range

Critical frequency for the superconductor, above which electromagnetic waves are absorbed, and below which they are completely reflected (1011 Hz)

8) The wide band pulse radiation of the rings (20 kHz - 40.2 MHz)

Non-stationary Josephson phenomenon: generation of electromagnetic waves by Josephson’s weak links with the parameter 4.83594 × 1014 Hz/V [16]

9) Existence of Kilometric radiation of the Saturn rings (ν < 1.2 MHz)

The electric field appears due to the movement of the superconducting fluid within the magnetic field

10) Color differentiation of Saturn’s rings in a small scale

Dependence of the force of magnetic levitation from the volume of superconducting phase in the bulk matter (observed in experiment)

11) Phenomenon of anomalous inversion of reflection of the radio waves with the circular polarization (λ ≥ 1 cm)

Positive charge of the superconducting carriers (protons) [17]

12) Possible distribution of particles by size in Saturn’s rings in the radial direction

Dependence of magnetic separation of the superconducting particles by size, and also, strength, extension, and the range of the applied magnetic field [18]

13) The existence of an atmosphere of molecular oxygen around the rings of Saturn

Magnetic levitation of gas molecules due to diamagnetic expulsion forces induced in superconducting particles by molecular magnetic moments (observed in experiment). Flux pinning [19]

14) Saturn’s magnetic field alignment with the planet’s rotation axis (<0.06˚)

London moment [20]

15) Increasing the purity of the ice in the radial direction from Saturn

The dependence of the force of expulsion of a superconductor from a magnetic field on the volume of the super conducting phase (observed in experiment)

16) “Dirt” concentrated in the ring’s gaps

The phenomenon of expulsion of the superconductors out of the areas with greater density of magnetic flow

17) Deviation in the qualitative composition of the “rain” from the composition of the rings [21]

London’s penetration depth , flux pinning, super-diamagnetic expulsion

18) “Plateaus” in Saturn’s C ring

Tao effect: Electric-field induced formation of superconducting granular balls [22]

19) Age of the rings

London moment, super-diamagnetic expulsion, flux pinning

20) Roll-off in the spectrum (100 μm - 0.5 mm) [23] [24]

Superconducting energy gap (10−4 eV - 10−3 eV)

21) “Propellers” in Saturn’s A ring [25]

Gyromagnetic effect [26] , London moment, super-diamagnetic expulsion

22) Origin, dynamics and evolution of the rings

All phenomena above