Turbulence model | Low Re type k-e model (Abe-Kondoh-Nagano model [23] , three-dimensional) |

Mesh | 3,007,680 mesh (wall unit y |

Scheme | Convection term: second-order upwind |

Inflow boundary | U k |

Outflow boundary | U |

Wall treatment | Velocity = no-slip VHP Equation (6) or (8) |

VHP | Passive scalar (turbulent Schmidt Number σ |