Audas & Willms (2001)

The participation of students in the activities held at the school

Hu & Kuh (2002)

The level of participation of students in academic and non-academic activities and students’ appreciation of schooling goals.

Skinner et al. (2009)

The quality of effort shown by students in educational activities contributes to expected outcomes.

Suh & Suh (2006)

The quality of contact or participation of students with the efforts shown in the school which covers social relationships, activities, goals’ value and the environment.

Furlong et al. (2003)

Denotes relationship, participation, attachment and integration within the environment or task.



Fredricks et al. (2004)

Emotional engagement (positive and negative reactions to teachers, peers, academics and schools).

Klem & Connell (2004)

Affective, behavioral and cognitive engagement among students with peer groups, in the classroom and at school.

Jimerson et al. (2003)

Continuous engagement (including behavioral, emotional and cognitive components) and responses to challenges.

Chapman (2003)

Types of affective engagement (feelings about school, teacher and peers), behaviors (observable actions) and cognitive (perceptions and beliefs).



Marks (2000)

Cognitive, behavioral and affective desires to participate in specific tasks in the daily activities of the school.

Salleh et al. (2013)

Desire, need, the will of the students to engage in routine school activities such as attending classes, assigning teachers’ assignments and following teachers’ instruction in the classroom.

Leonard (2008)

Presenting oneself to school, participating in organized activities in tandem with the persistent effort and feeling of “sense of belonging”.

Yazzie-Mintz (2010)

The student psychological process includes attention, interest, application and effort in learning.

Azman et al. (2005)

Cognitive/intellectual/academic, social/behavior/participation and emotion (relationship between feeling with school includes achievement, school climate, relationship with teachers and peers).