Intended outcomes


Sustainable development goals taken in consideration: 3, 4, 5



Cell Structure and Metabolism

Unit 9. The complexity of Nature

1) Energy

2) Light and colour

3) Sound

4) Matter

・ Periodic table

・ Elements, atoms and molecules

・ Chemical reactions

・ Chemistry of Life

5) The cell structure

6) Cell metabolism: what is it?

・ Photosynthesis purpose

・ Fermentation purpose

・ Aerobic respiration purpose

・ DNA expression

7) Cell cycle and mitosis

8) Meiosis and fecundation

9) The Immune system


Themes should be developed to provide the basic information to understand how nature works. It is not intended to massacre students with formulas and definitions, but to let them hear and ask about what is energy, light (why are plants’ foliage green), etc.

The ideal would be for natural sciences to have 3 to 4 hours per week in students’ schedule, but, that is not the reality of many places, so teachers need to seek the best way to explain the topics as efficiently as possible, but without suffocating students.

This applies to all the themes shown.

For example, if teachers have time, they can explain the implications of meiosis and fecundation for the diversity of life, and even explore different life cycles; Otherwise, they can show meiosis as a different process for genetic material division of the cell.

An idea is to use the Immune system as the central theme to mobilize the information taught in Unit 9.

To learn concepts of Physics like energy, light, and sound.

To learn about the organization of matter.

To learn the cell structure: organelles and their functions and interactions

To study some metabolic pathways/purposes, like photosynthesis, fermentation, cell respiration and genetic expression.

To learn the cell cycle and mitosis (with microscopic observations whenever possible).

To learn meiosis and fecundation, and the implications of them.

To study the human immune system, as a complex interaction between tissues, cells, molecules of a wide variety.