Variable type | Variable symbol | Definition | |

Explained variable | TAX AVOIDANCE | Tax Avoidance Indicators: BTD, DDBTD | |

Explanatory variable | IP | When the company’s industry year is within the period of industrial policy support, IP is 1, otherwise it is 0. | |

Grouping variable | SOE | Nature of property. State-owned enterprise is assigned to 1, otherwise it is 0 | |

DTE | The ratio of actual tax revenue to expected tax revenue in each region is taken as an alternative variable to the tax administration strength of tax authorities in the region. The greater the value, the greater the strength of tax collection. DTE is 1 when TE is greater than the median of the sample, 0 otherwise | ||

Control variable | SIZE | Enterprise size, natural logarithm of total assets | |

MTB | Growth indicator, market value of company’s equity divided by book value | ||

LEV | Assets and liabilities | ||

ROA | Return on Assets | ||

PPE | The proportion of fixed assets | ||

INTANG | Proportion of intangible assets | ||

LOSS | Whether the loss was in the previous year, the loss was taken as 1, otherwise it was 0 |