Solver Type

Pressure based, double precision, steady state, 2D

Viscous model

k-ε realizable with standard wall function


Water with density of 998 kg/m3

Reference frame

Rotational for paddle wheel zone

Pressure-velocity coupling


Gradient Discretization

Least square cell based

Pressure Discretization


Momentum Discretization

Second-order upwind

Turbulent kinetic energy Discretization

Second-order upwind

Turbulent dissipation energy Discretization

Second-order upwind

Convergence criteria

1 × 104

Solution initialization

Standard initialization with absolute relativity

Boundary condition

Velocity inlet (22, 27, 33, 44, 55 mph) Pressure outlet 0 l b/ft2