Type of organisation


Methods and


Degree of Freedom and Opportunities

Locality Groups

village and native-place societies, neighbourhood associations


mutual benefit purposes

enjoy operational freedom, unless involved in contentious issues

Occupational Groups

guilds, trade associations, occupational associations, labour rights organisations


mutual benefit purposes

enjoy freedom and growing opportunities, with the exception of labour rights organisations

Spiritual Fellowships

official religious societies, temples, philosphers, cults


mutual benefit purposes

official religious societies enjoy moderate freedom but limited space, cults may face serious repressions

Epistemic communities

expert networks, academics, alumni associations

networking, educational purposes, influencing

mutual and public benefit purposes

enjoy moderate to high freedom (issue sensitive in academia) and growing cooperation opportunities with government

Solidarity Groups

social work, support to vulnerable groups (such as disabled persons and children), environmental protection

helping, supporting, empowering

public benefit purposes

enjoy moderate freedom and growing opportunities, including with private sector; those addressing rights issues and receiving foreign funding face shrinking spaces

Groups addressing common causes and public policy issues

pollution monitoring, international friendship societies, policy advocacy work

awareness raising, enlightening, networking, shaming, mobilising,

public benefit purposes

freedom and space depend on the focus of work and contacts to CCP and government, some enjoy growing opportunities, feminist action groups face shrinking spaces