Students are provided with various tasks. The main characteristics of these tasks are as follows:

1) The task is goal-oriented. Activities should be structured so that they have a specific purpose and outcome.

2) Students should pay attention to meaning rather than grammatical forms.

3) The task should practise a wide range of linguistic forms rather than a specific linguistic structure. In order to express meanings more freely, various linguistic forms should be involved. For example, students are asked to narrate a story. The predicted linguistic forms are not limited to past tense, but also some linguistic features of a recount genre, in order to + infinitive structure and so forth.

4) The tasks should be organized in various activities involving negotiation and making decisions such as solving a problem through discussion, making a decision like choosing a tourist destination through discussion.

Littlewood, W. (2000). Task-Based Learning of Grammar. In HK English Advisory Inspectorate (Ed.), Teaching and Learning Update, 1, 40-47.