Activities in this teaching approach have two features: 1) students are able to complete the activities without attending to meaning; and 2) there is only one correct response. The typical activities include transferring the present tense forms into past tense forms or substituting the past for the present. Examples as follows:


Go shopping → I went shopping yesterday.

Dance → I danced yesterday.


I go shopping. → I went shopping

I dance. → I danced

Benati, A. G., & Lee, J. F. (2008). Grammar Acquisition and Processing Instruction: Secondary and Cumulative Effects (p. 100). Bristol; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Lee, J. F., & Van Patten, B. (2003). Making Communicative Language Teaching Happen (pp. 10, 121). Boston: McGraw-Hill.