Authors (Year)


Sample Size


Main Findings


Holt, Armenakis, Field, and Harris (2007) [13]

To develop an instrument to measure the individual level of readiness for organizational change



The development of 26-item organizational readiness scale that measure its four main constructs: change-specific efficacy, appropriateness, management support, and personal valence.


Kgasi and Kalema (2014) [2]

To investigate the determinants of e-health readiness in rural areas of South Africa



The need for change was identified as the most influential determinant of e-health readiness, while societal readiness was the least important.


Weiner (2009) [14]

To define organizational readiness for change conceptually setting its determinants and outcomes

Not applicable


Readiness for change was defined conceptually and consisted of two main constructs: change commitment, and change efficacy.

Three key determinants of change implementation were identified: task demands, resource availability, and the situational factors.


Durrani, Khoja, Naseem, Scott, Gul, and Jan (2012) [16]

To assess the need and readiness for e-health at healthcare facilities in Pakistan


Mixed Qualitative Methods: Interviews and Focus groups

The needs of healthcare institutions in terms of e-health ware categorized into the groups: provision of care needs (lack of human resources, restricting government policies, difficulties in referral systems, issues with service utilization); learning needs (i.e. lack of continuous education, and lack of information and research); and information management needs (issues with paper-based records, and communication of information).


Najaftorkaman, Ghapanchi, Talaei-Khoei, and Ray (2013) [17]

To categorize the areas of research related to the field of Electronic Medical Records (EMR)

155 papers published between 2011 and 2012

Literature Review

Eight areas of EMR related research were identified: design and implementation, evaluation, adoption, impacts, medical research, integration, EMR data design and management, and policy and standards.

EMR is used to improve the quality of healthcare and enhances efficiency, on the other side, healthcare providers and health service managers reported negative perceptions.


Biruk, Yilma, Andualem, and Tilahun (2014) [18]

To assess health professionals’ readiness and to acceptance and usage of electronic medical records in Ethiopia



The majority of the study participants (71.3%) did have good knowledge and attitudes toward EMR systems. Factors that are associated with EMR readiness are: gender, attitudes toward EMR, knowledge about EMR, and computer literacy.