Stern [2]

“In our view strategy is best reserved for general tendencies or overall characteristics of the approach employed by the language learner, leaving techniques as the term to refer to particular forms of observable learning behavior.”

Weinstein and Mayer [3]

“Learning strategies are the behaviors and thoughts that a learner engages in during learning that are intended to influence the learner’s encoding process.”

Chamot [4]

“Learning strategies are techniques, approaches or deliberate actions that students take in order to facilitate the learning, recall of both linguistic and content area information.”

Rubin [5]

“Learning strategies are strategies which contribute to the development of the language system which the learner constructs and affect learning directly.”

Oxford [6]

“Language learning strategies are behaviors or actions which learners use to make language learning more successful, self-directed and enjoyable.”