Brief description of study

Relevant findings

1) Retrospective cohort study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil of 311 patients from years 2004-2006 (ARR―Adjusted Risk Ratio)

- Reported that poor predictors of treatment outcome and infection were alternative regimens of SEO (Streptomycin, Ethambutol and Ofloxacin) (ARR: 11.43), Low income (ARR: 11.20), HIV without ART (ARR: 9.64), Lack of bacterial confirmation (ARR: 4.0) Diabetes (ARR: 3.94) younger age (ARR: 3.84) and alcoholism (ARR: 1.76).

2) Prospective cohort study in 2 tertiary centers in South Korea from years 2005-2012 (limitations represents severe cases of TB as it was done in tertiary centers, not representative of all TB cases)

- Identified that predictors of End of Study (EOS) outcomes included a diagnosis of Diabetes, presence of MDR-TB, high risk age group, BMI and alcoholism.

- Noted curiously that social stigma of the disease, long distance away from treatment center and blue collar workers also exhibited worse outcomes.

3) A retrospective cohort study using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-TB (FACIT-TB) scale to assess health related quality of life in 205 patients in a tertiary center in Iraq. FACIT-TB is a quality of life measure that investigates physical, social, economic and spiritual aspects of someone with or without TB. Administered either face to face interview or self-administered.

- The study population consisted of almost 30% illiterate participants and 50% sole breadwinners.

- Poor educational levels, poor financial status, smokers, emotional stress and also psychiatric complications were markers of poorer treatment outcomes and resistance.

- It was also noted that a higher baseline FACIT-TB score prior to infection related to a higher health related quality of life with the disease.

4) A cross-sectional prevalence study of 425 randomly chosen participants from 5 prisons in Pakistan. 48% of those randomly chosen tested positive for latent TB by TST (also called Mantoux test).

- Factors such as age, educational level, smoking status, duration of current incarceration and average accommodation space less than 60 ft2 were predictors of poor outcome and high rates of infectivity.

1) A cross-sectional survey analysis using selected data collection tools such as

- A Socio-Demographic Questionnaire;

- A Post-Traumatic-Stress Disorder Identification Test

- self-reporting of tobacco use

- self-reporting of perceived health and adherence.

The study investigated the predictors of treatment outcome in 2 groups of patient; those on anti-TB medication (n = 3107) and those on anti-retroviral and anti-TB patients (N = 757) across 14 health facilities in South Africa.

- Significant predictors of poor outcome in both dual therapy and just anti-TB groups were poverty, comorbidities, alcohol misuse and partner who is HIV positive.

- Significant predictors of better outcomes in both dual therapy and just the anti-TB groups that lead to better adherence and less severe disease were to perceive health status as poor, perceive health status as good, HIV negative status, sex partner on anti-retroviral.

- Authors found that a great deal of stigmatisation may deter patients to seek treatment.