Criteria and objectives of the study.




Ramnarain & Hlatswayo, 2018

Teacher beliefs and attitudes about inquiry-based learning in a rural school district in South Africa

To study that Teacher beliefs and attitudes about inquiry-based learning in a rural school

The study found that teachers in rural schools have a positive attitude towards inquiry in science education and they find that inquiry-based learning can increase student motivation and help students understand more abstract science concepts.

Dublin et al., 2014

COSEE-AK Ocean Science Fairs: A Science Fair Model That Grounds Student Projects in Both Western Science and Traditional Native Knowledge

To integrate western science education with traditional knowledge of Native and rural Alaska students in science education.

The study found that learning outside the classroom such as learning integrates traditional and cultural knowledge relevant to science education is very effective and meaningful. This is because Native Alaska students and rural students find the traditional knowledge and culture of their daily lives to be related to science education. From the activities they participated in, they learned that their daily routines were related to science education. They gain a lot of experience in their activities especially in terms of communicating their science projects.

Agbo & Isa, 2017

Scientific Skills and Concept Learning by Rural Women for Personal and National Development

This study examines the concept of scientific skills in science education among rural women in national development.

a) After science education was implemented among rural women the study found that scientific skills in science education among them showed significant improvement especially in health care, water use, nutrition, sanitation, and agriculture.

b) Based on these findings, researchers suggest that rural women should be provided with ample opportunity to study science and obtain quality education regardless of geographical, gender or socioeconomic background to meet the goals of science education equally and equally. It is in line with equity in science education.

Avery & Kassam, 2011

Phronesis: Children’s Local Rural Knowledge of Science and Engineering

This study analyzed video interviews and 407 pictures taken by 20 5th and 6th graders at a rural school in New York State. This study documents science education and engineering learning among them.

a) 20 rural students learn various science and engineering concepts related to their daily lives.

b) Students are found to be able to investigate and make explicit connections between what they learn in science class and what they learn outside of school in their local environment.

c) This finding is very important in implementing the process of teaching and learning science and engineering as it is closely related to the rural environment of student life

Alabdulkareem, 2016

The Impact of Science Teachers’ Beliefs on Teaching Science: The Case of Saudi Science Teachers

The goal of this study was to draw conclusions and pedagogical implications to contribute to a better understanding of science teachers’ beliefs.

a) The results show a significant shift toward the discovery approach.

b) The results show that there has been a shift in student-centered teaching methods to constructivism teaching among teachers in Saudi Arabia

c) Teachers are found to be less confident in integrating science education with their cultural background.

d) The results show that teachers see science as a separate issue and cannot easily link it to emerging cultural and historical issues.