Natural Environment

Conventional Environment

1. Nature of Resource

indefinite openness

abstract contrasts

2. Structure of Artifact






3. Perception

direct (cognition depends on perceptual world)

indirect (cognition does not depend on perceptual world, and logics override perceptual process)

4. Embodiment

embodied cognition

disembodied cognition

5. Cognitive Method

induction, deduction, & abduction

induction & deduction

6. Handling of Errors

heuristic constructive;

adoptive and tolerance

no solution or limited solution; less tolerance

7. Effect on Memory

contain more images;

images are more stable and have more sensual qualities; and images are motivating

contain less images;

images are vague and easy to fade away and with less sensual qualities; and images are less motivating