Source of literature


Burns (1978)

Leaders motivate subordinates to work hard, and promote subordinates and reform through higher-level values encouragement.

Bass (1985)

The leader explains the importance of the task to subordinates, Inspire the intrinsic motivation of subordinates, realize the importance of collective interests and expect their higher performance.

Yukl (1989)

Leaders strengthen their sense of mission to the organization by affecting the attitudes and behaviors of the members, allow the subordinates do their work willingly, match management strategies to organizational culture to ensure the achievement of organizational goals.

Leithwood (1992)

Leaders demonstrate the organizational vision and encourage subordinates’ enthusiasm and commitment to their work, make subordinates hopeful about the future and achieve organizational goals through practical actions.

Pillai et al. (1999)

By inspire the inner needs of subordinates, the leaders enable subordinates to build the interests of organization over their own interests and build a mutual trust working atmosphere, thus prompt subordinates higher performance.

Robbins (2001)

Through intrinsic motivation and care, the leader makes the subordinates willing to pay for the organization and inspire subordinates to make efforts even sacrifices of the interests of the organization to accomplish organizational goals through their personal traits.

Waldman et al. (2001)

Transformational leaders attempt to establish a friendly relationship with subordinates. Leaders describe the organization’s vision and expectations for high performance, so that subordinates enhance their respect of leaders and confidence in work and demonstrate the determination to work hard and the sense of mission to achieve organizational goals.

Ackoff (2007)

Transformational leaders describe organizational vision with subordinates, so that subordinates feel that they can achieve their organizational vision through their own efforts, they are willing to sacrifice personal interests for the benefit of the organization. By creating an organizational atmosphere, subordinates can feel happy at work and have a sense of self-realization. Ultimately, leaders are sure to promote team members to achieve organizational goals.

Li, C.P. and Shi, K. (2005)

Transformational leaders portray the organizational vision to subordinates, awaken the intrinsic motivation of subordinates and motivate employees to self-realization, transcend “ordinary self” to achieve “more self”, strive to increase work commitment and ultimately achieve organizational goals.