Schwienbacher (2010)

Crowdfunding is a project or innovation that financing from a group of individuals instead of raising funds from professional financial institutions. It is still in its infancy [1] .

Belleflamme (2011)

Crowdfunding is a public tender. New companies raise funds from the public through the Internet to achieve a special goal. The companies can return the public with many ways, such as products, stock or nothing. They just do some donation [2] .

Bechter (2011)

The procedure of financing is translating the information to the public through social networks. The providers can participate in the project [3] .

Ghose (2012)

Crowdfunding is a unique combination of collective evaluation and public funding. The public choose a project they want to support by investing it. At the same time they will give some advices to the initiator [4] .

Julie (2012)

Crowdfunding emphasizes the intellectual property as well as the public capital [5] .

Molick (2013)

Crowdfunding is the individuals or organizations get a small amount of money as the start of project funding from a relatively large amount of people [6] .