Detailed description

Representative research



manage identity, maintain self-awareness

Shrum et al., 2013

Meet the need for uniqueness and belonging

Wong et al., 2011

Make up for threatened self-esteem

Wong et al., 2011

Jiang et al., 2015

Relieve pressure

Brouskeli & Loumakou, 2014

Reduce happiness

Kasser et al., 2014

Wang et al., 2017b

Reduce life satisfaction

Tsang et al., 2014

Reduce the quality of life

Roberts & Clement, 2007

Less positive emotions, higher levels of depression, loneliness, anxiety and substance abuse

Kasser & Ryan, 1993, 1996;

Pieters, 2013

Reduce self-awareness, quality of relationships, and willingness to participate in community activities

Kasser & Ahuvia, 2002



promoting economic prosperity and social progress

Sirgy et al., 2013

Driving fashion innovation

Goldsmith et al., 2013

Marketing staff design promotional information

Heath & Chatzidakis, 2012

Poor money management skills

Donnelly et al., 2013

More gambling problems

Carver & McCarty, 2013

Accumulate huge debts

Watson, 2003

Compulsive consumption

Donnelly et al., 2013

Dittmar et al., 2014

Conspicuous consumption

Podoshen, Li, & Zhang, 2011

Positively related to consumer behavior and attitudes triggered by hedonism, image and status values

Dittmar et al., 2014

Kamal et al., 2013

Workman & Lee, 2011

Srivastava et al., 2001



Work hard to complete challenging tasks

Vohs, Mead, & Goode, 2006

Increase the profits of enterprises and create funds for research and development

Richins & Rudmin, 1994

Kasser et al., 2007

Lower quality of work life

Deckop et al., 2010

Increase in work-family conflict

Promislo et al., 2010

Have a negative impact on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs

Vansteenkiste et al., 2007

Negative correlation with work-related happiness indicators

Deckop et al., 2010

Organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviation behavior

Deckop et al., 2015



Reduce environmental concerns and environmental responsibility

Kilbourne & Pickett, 2008

Hurst et al., 2013

Ecological environment deterioration

Kasser, 2016


Roets, Van Hiel, & Cornelis, 2006

Fewer philanthropy, like individual activities and less physical contact

Vohs, Mead, & Goode, 2006

Enhance personal material wealth and reduce the wealth of others

Chowdhury & Fernando, 2013

Prosocial behavior reduction

Wierzbicki & Zawadzka, 2016

Immoral behavior

Gino & Mogilner, 2014