Invenotry of Callous- Unemotonal Traits

Frick (2004)






The coefficient alpha = .81 (Kimonis, Frick, Skeem, Marsee, Cruise, Munoz, Aucoin, & Morris, 2008b)

Evidence of concurrent validity is given by significant positive correlations with external criteria: positive correlations with proactive and reactive aggression, violent and non-violent delinquency and sex offenders. It is negatively correlated with empathy and positive affect.



Referential Thinking Scale (REF)

Lenzenweger, Bennett, & Lilenfield (1997).


The REF displayed good internal consistency (α = .86) for the total sample—Lenzenweger, Bennett, & Lilenfield (1997).

High scores on the REF are associated with elevated scores on measures of perceptual aberration, magical ideation, and schizophrenia-related psychometric deviance, all measures known to be related to schizotypy, which is suggestive of convergent validity—Lenzenweger, Bennett, & Lilenfield (1997).

Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)

Raine (1991)


1) Ideas of reference 2) Excessive social anxiety.

3) Odd beliefs or magical thinking.

4) Unusual perceptual experiences.

5) Odd or eccentric behaviour.

6) No close friends.

7) Odd speech.

8) Constricted affect.

9) Suspiciousness.

High internal reliability (.91), test-retest reliability (.82) —Raine (1991).

High convergent validity (.59 to .81), discriminative validity (.63) and criterion validity (.68)—Raine (1991).

Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire- Brief (SPQ-B)

Raine & Benishay (1995).


1) Interpersonal Deficits

2) Cognitive-Perceptual Deficits

3) Disorganisation.

In the present sample, the KR-20 internal consistency reliability coefficient for the full SPQ-B was .83 ( .82 in biological relatives and .83 in non-psychiatric comparison participants) —Compton, Chien, Bollini, 2007.

Correlations between SPQ-B total and subscale scores and the derived SCID-II SPD criteria scores were examined next in a subsample of participants for whom SCID-II data were available (from the first study; n = 58). The SPQ-B total score was significantly correlated with the SCID-II SPD criteria total score (p = .49, pb.001). —Compton, Chien, & Bollini, 2007.

Structured Interview for Schizotypy (SIS)

Kendler, Lieberman, & Walsh (1989).


1) Childhood Personality thinking.

2) Adolescent Personality

3) Social Isolation

4) Interpersonal Sensitivity

5) Social Anxiety

6) Ideas of Reference

7) Being Watched

8) Remarks

9) Suspiciousness

10) Restricted Emotion

11) Magical Thinking

12) Illusions

13) Psychotic-like phenomena

14) Derealisation

15) Antisocial Behaviour

16) Impulsivity