Hare Psychopathy Checklist- Revised (PCL-R)

Hare (1991)



1) Callous/ manipulative interpersonal style

2) Antisocial action

- Harpur, Hare & Hakstian, 1989.

To assess inter-rater reliability, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs; Shrout & Fleiss, 1979) were calculated for subsamples of subjects rated by more than one rat er (seesample descriptions for №). They ranged from .78 to .94 (M = .86) for a single rating and from .87 to .97 (M = .93) for the average of two ratings (computations based on the Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula).2 Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach’s coefficient alpha, which ranged from .85 to .89 (M = .88), and by the mean inter-item correlation, which ranged from .23 to .30 (M = .27). These results indicate that the PCL-R, like the PCL, Can be considered a homogeneous, uni- dimensional scale (Harpur et al., 1989)—Hare, Harpur, Hakstian, Forth, Hart, & Newman, 1990.

The associations found between the convergent validity measures and the PCL–R when it was used dimensionally support the validity of the instrument. As predicted, on-Psychoticism, SRPS, SMAST, MPQ-Constraint, and SO scale scores were significantly related to PCL–R scores. Overall, the pattern of results for both the Caucasian and African American women provided support for the convergent validity of the PCL–R in this sample—Vitale, Smith, Brinkley, & Newman, 2002.

Levenson’s self-report psychopathy scale (SRPS)

Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick (1995).


1. Primary psychopathy

2. Secondary psychopathy

Cronbach’s alphas for the total sample were .85 for the total SRPS, .83 for SRPS factor 1 and .69 for SRPS factor 2—Brinkley, Schmitt, Smith, & Newman, 2000.

The SRPS and the PCL-R were significantly correlated and both showed similar patterns of correlations to measures of substance abuse and criminal versatility. SRPS was predictive of performance of a passive avoidance task—Brinkley, Schmitt, Smith, & Newman, 2000.

Psychopathic Personality Inventory Revised (PPI-R)

Lilienfeld & Widows, (2005).

Internal consistency is adequate for the PPI-R Total score and the PPI-R Content scale scores, with coefficient alpha ranging from .78 - .92 for the community/college sample. For the offender sample, internal consistency estimates for the Total and Content scale scores ranged from .72 - .84—Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005

Evidence of construct validity was obtained via significant correlations between the PPI-R and self-report measures of pathological and nonpathological personality functioning, DSM-IV Antisocial Personality Disorder, interpersonal problems, sensation-seeking, substance use, and offense variables— Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005

The Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

Lynam, Gaughan, Miller, Miller, Mullins- Sweatt, & Widiger (2011)



1) Distrust

2) Manipulation

3) Self-centeredness

4) Opposition

5) Arrogance

6) Callousness

Conscientiousness :

1) Disobliged

2) Impersistence

3) Rashness


1) Coldness

2) Dominance

3) Thrill-Seeking


1) Unconcern

2) Anger

3) Self-Contentment

4) Self-Assurance

5) Urgency

6) Invulnerablility

Final scales were fairly reliable. Seventeen of the 18 scales had alpha coefficients above .7; 14 of these were above .8. The average alpha for the 18 scales was .81. The scales were also fairly homogeneous. Average interitem correlations ranged from .16 for Arrogance to .48 for Dominance, with an average of .34. Average item-total correlations ranged from .31 for Arrogance to .62 for Thrill-Seeking, with an average of .51.

Concurrent validity was shown by correlations with other self-report psychopathy measures; SRP, LSRP, PPI-R. The measure contains two validity scales: Infrequency scale, and a Too Good to Be True scale. It has an alpha level of .95.