Root causes

Barrier Analysis

Forest Ecosystem


Bushfires, droughts.


Agriculture expansion, Agro-industrial plantations, Industrial & artisanal logging, Mining, Poaching, Urbanization, Firewood and charcoal production; Human intrusions.

Forest fragmentation and degradation (by farming, new settlement, roads, and skid trails), Biodiversity loss, Large scale ecosystem changes.

Poverty & population growth, Lack of governance, Communities dependence on natural resources & Absence of alternative livelihood opportunities, and low economy.

Insufficient understanding of adequate agroforestry technologies, Insufficient demonstration projects, Insufficient economic incentives, Inadequate legal/regulatory basis.

Water Resources


A decline in rainfall and average flows; Water scarcity during low flows, Floods.

Human-induced: Urbanization, Soil erosion, domestic and industrial pollutions, Mining, Agriculture expansion, Agro-industrial plantations.

Water quality degradation (mining, agro-industrial plantations discharges chemicals), Water-borne diseases, Degradation of water ecosystems, Growth of aquatic weeds.

Poverty & population growth, Transboundary resources, Difficulties to access groundwater reserves of which very little is exploited today, Degradation of products and service functions, and loss of tree-based vegetation cover.

Lack of hydrological systematic monitoring and water-quality data, weak coordination, national laws, policies not implemented, Low capacity of local institutions and administration.