First variables

Secondary variables

Tertiary variables

Education & Teaching


Explain: Explain knowledge

Present: Presentation and clarification

Enlighten: Enlighten on children’s thoughts

Listen to Qs: Listen to children’s questions about relevant knowledge

Listen to As: Listen to children’s answers about relevant knowledge

Listen to expressions: Listen to children’s expression of their ideas

Listen to requests: Listen to children’s requests of relevant presentations

Instruct/Require for practices

Encourage: Encourage children to continue when encountering difficulties

Help/Explain/Suggest: Help children, explain what they do not understand, propose suggestions for improvement

Listen to statements: Listen to children’s statements of difficulties in activities and put forward requests

Instruct/Require practices: Instruct children to answer Qs with operations and continue activities as required

Provide activity choices: Provide more than two activity choices for children

Evaluation/ Feedback on results of activities

General praise: Make good judgment only on the results

Specific praise: Point out the details worth praising

General disapproval: Make negative judgment on the results

Specific disapproval: Point out the negative details

Participation into children’s activities

No participation

Observation and monitoring

Temporary intervention

General instructions and teaching

Complete participation

Daily behavior management

Give Instructions

Give instructions

Listen to children’s response to instructions

Require for silence

Require children keep quiet

Pay attention to and intervene or prevent children’s some behaviors

Propose rules

Propose rules

Listen to children’s sayings about relevant behavioral rules

Solve individual’s questions

Listen to children’

Approve the requests

Refuse the requests

Solve disputes

Listen to children’s statement about relevant disputes

Evaluation and feedback on behaviors

General positive feedback

Specific positive feedback

General negative feedback

Specific negative feedback

Listen to children’s saying about relevant behavioral evaluation

Observation & Monitoring

Observations with records: Record children’s behaviors over observations

Accompanying monitoring: Same with children’ activities without any exchanges

General inspection: No participation into

Activities after giving the instructions but only observe children’s operational behaviors

Custody & Emotional Expression

Expression of friendly emotions

Comfort & protection

Expression of negative emotions

Teachers’ daily activities

Transitional behaviors

Prepare teaching lessons

Arrange and tidy the environment

Hand out materials

Take care of children’s life

Personal activities: Activities irrelevant to children