Definition of brand image

Blanket definitions

Herzog (1963) [3]

Consumers’general perception and impression of a brand

Newman (1985) [4]

Consumers’perception of a product’s total attributes

Dichter (1985) [5]

Consumers’general impression of the product or service

Meanings and messages

Noth (1988) [6]

The symbolic meaning embedded in the product or service

Sommers (1964) [7]

Consumers’perception and recognition of a product’s symbolic attribute

Levy (1973) [8]

The symbolic meaning of purchasing the product or service


Martineau (1957) [9]

Brand image reflects consumers’characteristics, and they purchase the brand to express themself

Bettinger (1979) [10]

The personification of a product, which can be manifested as “adult” and “children”

Sirgy (1985) [11]

Image of the brand resembles human personality

Cognitive or psychological elements

Gardner & Levy (1955) [12]

Brand image is consisted of consumers’opinion, attitude and emotion toward a brand, which reflects the cognitive or psychological elements of the brand

Levy (1978) [13]

Consumers’overall impression about a brand or product, which includes recognition, feeling and attitude toward it

Bullmore (1984) [14]

Consumers’general perception and opinion of a brand’s total attributes

Kapferer (1994) [15]

Consumers’general perception about the brand feature’s association