Tuzcu, A. and Bahar, Z. (2014), Turkey

To examine facilitators and barriers that migrant women in Turkey identified related to breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography

phenomenological qualitative (Focus group method)

Perceived barriers, perceived facilitators, and health-promoting behaviors


39 migrant women aged between 20 - 57 years in Turkey

Three main themes were emerged as a result of data analysis: 1) knowledge and awareness about breast cancer; 2) personal factors; and 3) medical service provider and social environment. Also the results showed that HBM and HPM were effective in explaining barriers and facilitators toward participation of women in screening behaviors. Additionally, lack of information, indifference, and cultural factors are the most important barriers of women

Shaheen et al. (2015), Jordan

To determine health promoting behaviors of university students in Jordan and factors influencing them

Cross-sectional descriptive design

Health-promoting behaviors

Health-promoting behaviors― Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) (Walker & Hill-Polerecky,


525 university students receiving education from two governmental and one private universities in Jordan

Significant differences between health-promoting behavior and student’s age, gender, employment status, family income, university type, and faculty type (P < 0.01), significant differences between males and females on health responsibility and interpersonal relations, stress management, and spiritual growth (P < 0.05)

Grace, C. and Sandra, E. (2016), Nigeria

To determine the knowledge of and compliance with standard precautionary measures among nurses

Cross-sectional descriptive design

Knowledge and compliance

Knowledge-five questions (yes/no) answers (developed by the researchers) and compliance-4-items Likert scale (developed by the researchers)

102 nurses working in Madonna University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

Knowledge of respondents and their compliance with standard precautionary measures was above average. Majority of the nurses (80%) comply with both medical and surgical asepsis